Installation of wooden floors
When installing wooden floors, it is recommended to use the services of professional installers. Different installation methods require different techniques, skills and, above all, experience. It is said that the installer becomes a master when he has laid 10000m2 of material! This guide sets out the basic requirements that must be followed to ensure a beautiful and durable wooden floor.
We assure you that according to the instructions, only a few inexperienced installers can install and grind with high quality!
Bring the floorboards to the installation site ready 3-7 days in advance. This is necessary for the material to adapt to the conditions of the room. Check the relative humidity of the room in advance (should be in the range of 40-60% RH) as the humidity can be very high after painting. Keep floorboards unopened on a horizontal and level surface. During and after installation, the temperature of the subfloor, floor material and the room must be between 18-22 ° C.
In private houses, apartments and office premises with a modern ventilation and heating system, the air is very dry during dry weather (winter heating period), the humidity can even fall below 35% RH. Excessively dry indoor air is detrimental to human health.
Therefore, we recommend artificially increasing the humidity in the premises during dry weather, for example with the help of a humidifier.
In cottages or infrequently used rooms, it is recommended to use a heating system controlled by a humidity regulator. When the humidity exceeds a critical limit, it automatically switches on the heating system.
In the case of concrete subfloors, care must be taken to ensure that the unevenness of the floor remains within the normal range of ± 2 mm on a 2 m section. After pouring the concrete, it must be dry for 1-2 months or more (depending on the thickness of the concrete layer and drying conditions). At the start of installation, the relative humidity of the concrete must be within the range of ~ 75RH. The moisture content of the concrete must be measured before installation. Before starting the installation work, it is recommended to sand the too smooth concrete surface. This significantly improves the adhesion of the adhesive to the concrete. The temperature on the floor surface must not exceed + 27 ° C. Underfloor heating must be switched on for a new concrete floor at least 2 weeks before the start of the floor work.
Old concrete floor
If the old concrete floor is smooth, the unevenness must not exceed 2 m in a section ± 2 mm, clean and dry (max. 75% RH) the floorboard can be glued directly to the subfloor. If the subfloor is not level enough, see the section “Uneven concrete floor.” If there is any doubt about the moisture content of the concrete floor, take the same measures as for a damp concrete floor. See section "wet concrete floor."
Wet concrete floor
• If, despite ventilation, the moisture content of the subfloor does not fall within the permissible limits, possible faults must be sought and rectified. To determine the cause of moisture, the following must be done:
* check whether the external moisture insulation is in order;
* check that the thermal insulation of the floor is not wet;
* check that the floor moisture insulation is intact and correctly installed;
* check whether, for example, moisture does not enter the balcony doors;
* if there is a swimming pool in the lower room, check that the floor has lower moisture insulation and that it is in order;
* check the floor for hot and cold bridges.
Defects found on the basis of the above list must be rectified before installing the floor covering. If the moisture content is caused by capillary moisture, the subfloor should be covered with a primer.
NB! When considering this option, keep in mind that excess moisture in the substrate will in any case try to escape. If moisture does not escape from the floor upwards, it is absorbed into the wall structure, causing moisture and mold damage there.
Moisture insulation options:
* Epoxy primer - used for moisture insulation of concrete floors
* Roofing felt (polymer bitumen roll material) or specially glued materials that are glued to the entire subfloor.
* It is possible to use a film on which to place a layer of waterproof plywood.
Before gluing the parquet flags, the adhesive for fixing the moisture stack must be completely dry.
Uneven concrete floor
If the concrete surface is rough, it must be leveled or, if possible, sanded. In case of small irregularities, it is recommended to grind them out of the concrete with a diamond wheel.
Leveling is carried out with the appropriate mixtures in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. General recommendation — use the leveling compound as little as possible and only with the highest quality products.
"Self-leveling mixtures" must not be used to level uneven concrete, as the leveling layer is not strong enough and the adhesive with the installed material may break off the concrete. The thickness of the leveling layer should definitely not be less than 5 mm.
Plywood or OSB
If the floor is wooden ceilings, plywood (18-20mm) or OSB (22mm thick) boards are installed on the ceilings. Slab contraction joints should intersect at the openings for columns and should intersect at the openings for columns. Dowels must not be used for underfloor heating concrete unless the exact location of the heating pipe is known or the thickness of the concrete layer does not exceed the length of the dowel. The use of particle board (PLP) is not the best solution because it has lower moisture resistance and linear expansion differs from that of wood. When installing the tiles, gaps are left on the tiles e. expansion joints 3… 5mm. When gluing to concrete, plywood boards (1525x1525mm) should be cut into four smaller pieces before installation.
Old wooden subfloor
It must first be checked whether the subfloor of the boards is suitable for use as a base layer, the unevenness must not exceed ± 2 mm in a 2m section. If this condition is not met, the floor must be leveled by filling or sanding the depressions. Secure open boards with bolts or suitable screws. Squeaking or sinking areas must be opened and the cause of the fault rectified. Upholstered boards must be replaced. Check that the subfloor is stable before installation. Before gluing, the floor must be cleaned with a slightly damp cloth and detergent.
Subfloor on the ceilings
Subfloor beams and bearings must be rigid and spaced in accordance with the thickness of the material. Floor bearings must be min. 45 x 45 mm, max moisture content 12%. We recommend using ceilings measuring 100x50mm and installing the bearings flattened. The optimal distance between the bearings is 40 cm from the center of the bearing to the center of the other bearing, ie the distance between the bearings is 30 cm.
* Parquet surface temperature during heating must not exceed +27 ° C. The daily temperature change / fluctuation can be a maximum of 2-3 ° C.
* Concrete moisture must be 1,8 - 2% CM. Less than 0,5% CM on gypsum floors (0,3% CM on heated floors). For wetter concrete, use special primers (approx. 3% CM). In the case of humidity higher than 75% RH or 3% CM, excess humidity in the premises must be removed with air humidifiers and wait until the concrete humidity has reached the permitted norm.
* The maximum relative humidity of concrete is 75% RH.
* Concrete casting must be able to dry under normal conditions for at least four weeks.
* To dry the concrete, the temperature of the floor heating is gradually raised by 3-5 ° C per day until the full heating capacity is reached. Drying is done for at least 2 weeks.
* Two to three days before laying the floor, the temperature is gradually lowered to 18-20 ° C. Proper drying of the rooms must be ensured during the drying heating of the concrete.
* After installing the parquet, the heating is kept at a constant temperature for at least 3 days, then it is gradually raised to a suitable temperature over a few weeks.
* Fine cracks may appear in the floor during the heating period. To minimize cracking, the indoor climate must meet the following requirements:
relative humidity 40-60% RH and temperature 18-22 ° C.
* The average thermal resistance of parquet (14 mm) is approx. 0,13 m² K / W. For mosaic parquets (8 mm) it is approx. 0,04 m² K / W and for strip parquet (16 mm) approx. 0,09 m² K / W.
* As beech and maple parquets "live" due to moisture, the manufacturer does not recommend placing them in rooms with underfloor heating.